TOI-1416: A system with a super-Earth planet with a 1.07 d period

September 2023 • 2023A&A...677A..12D

Authors • Deeg, H. J. • Georgieva, I. Y. • Nowak, G. • Persson, C. M. • Cale, B. L. • Murgas, F. • Pallé, E. • Godoy-Rivera, D. • Dai, F. • Ciardi, D. R. • Murphy, J. M. Akana • Beck, P. G. • Burke, C. J. • Cabrera, J. • Carleo, I. • Cochran, W. D. • Collins, K. A. • Csizmadia, Sz. • El Mufti, M. • Fridlund, M. • Fukui, A. • Gandolfi, D. • García, R. A. • Guenther, E. W. • Guerra, P. • Grziwa, S. • Isaacson, H. • Isogai, K. • Jenkins, J. M. • Kábath, P. • Korth, J. • Lam, K. W. F. • Latham, D. W. • Luque, R. • Lund, M. B. • Livingston, J. H. • Mathis, S. • Mathur, S. • Narita, N. • Orell-Miquel, J. • Osborne, H. L. M. • Parviainen, H. • Plavchan, P. P. • Redfield, S. • Rodriguez, D. R. • Schwarz, R. P. • Seager, S. • Smith, A. M. S. • Van Eylen, V. • Van Zandt, J. • Winn, J. N. • Ziegler, C.

Abstract • TOI-1416 (BD+42 2504, HIP 70705) is a V =10 late G- or early K-type dwarf star. TESS detected transits in its Sectors 16, 23, and 50 with a depth of about 455 ppm and a period of 1.07 days. Radial velocities (RVs) confirm the presence of the transiting planet TOI-1416 b, which has a mass of 3.48 ± 0.47 M and a radius of 1.62 ± 0.08 R, implying a slightly sub-Earth density of 4.50−0.83+0.99 g cm−3. The RV data also further indicate a tentative planet, c, with a period of 27.4 or 29.5 days, whose nature cannot be verified due to strong suspicions of contamination by a signal related to the Moon's synodic period of 29.53 days. The nearly ultra-short-period planet TOI-1416 b is a typical representative of a short-period and hot (Teq ≈ 1570 K) super-Earth-like planet. A planet model of an interior of molten magma containing a significant fraction of dissolved water provides a plausible explanation for its composition, and its atmosphere could be suitable for transmission spectroscopy with JWST. The position of TOI-1416 b within the radius-period distribution corroborates the idea that planets with periods of less than one day do not form any special group. It instead implies that ultra-short-period planets belong to a continuous distribution of super-Earth-like planets with periods ranging from the shortest known ones up to ≈30 days; their period-radius distribution is delimited against larger radii by the Neptune Desert and by the period-radius valley that separates super-Earths from sub-Neptune planets. In the abundance of small, short-periodic planets, a notable plateau has emerged between periods of 0.6-1.4 days, which is compatible with the low-eccentricity formation channel. For the Neptune Desert, its lower limits required a revision due to the increasing population of short-period planets; for periods shorter then 2 days, we establish a radius of 1.6 R and a mass of 0.028 Mjup (corresponding to 8.9 M) as the desert's lower limits. We also provide corresponding limits to the Neptune Desert against the planets' insolation and effective temperatures.

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IPAC Authors


David Ciardi

Senior Scientist