A sub-Neptune planet around TOI-1695 discovered and characterized with SPIRou and TESS

February 2023 • 2023A&A...670A.136K

Authors • Kiefer, F. • Hébrard, G. • Martioli, E. • Artigau, E. • Doyon, R. • Donati, J. -F. • Cadieux, C. • Carmona, A. • Ciardi, D. R. • Cristofari, P. I. • de Almeida, L. • Figueira, P. • Gaidos, E. • Gonzales, E. • Lecavelier Des Etangs, A. • Stassun, K. G. • Arnold, L. • Benneke, B. • Boisse, I. • Bonfils, X. • Cook, N. J. • Cortés-Zuleta, P. • Delfosse, X. • do Nascimento, J. Dias • Fausnaugh, M. • Fong, W. • Fouqué, P. • Forveille, T. • Gomes da Silva, J. • Hesse, K. • Kóspál, Á. • Lewis, H. • Liu, C. -F. • Martins, J. H. C. • Paegert, M. • Seager, S. • Shang, H. • Twicken, J. D. • Vandal, T. • Vinatier, S. • Widemann, T. • Winn, J. N.

Abstract • TOI-1695 is a V-mag = 13 M-dwarf star from the northern hemisphere at 45 pc from the Sun, around which a 3.134-day periodic transit signal from a super-Earth candidate was identified in TESS photometry. With a transit depth of 1.3 mmag, the radius of candidate TOI-1695.01 was estimated by the TESS pipeline to be 1.82 R with an equilibrium temperature of ~620 K. We successfully detected a reflex motion of the star and establish that it is due to a planetary companion at an orbital period consistent with the photometric transit period, thanks to a year-long radial-velocity monitoring of TOI-1695 by the SPIRou infrared spectropolarimeter. We used and compared different methods to reduce and analyze those data. We report a 5.5σ detection of the planetary signal, giving a mass of 5.5±1.0 M and a radius of 2.03±0.18 R. We derive a mean equilibrium planet temperature of 590±90 K. The mean density of this small planet of 3.6±1.1 g cm−3 is similar (1.7σ lower) than that of the Earth. It leads to a nonnegligible fraction of volatiles in its atmosphere with fH,He = 0.28−0.23+0.46% or fwater = 23±12%. TOI-1695 b is a new sub-Neptune planet at the border of the M-dwarf radius valley that can help test formation scenarios for super-Earth and sub-Neptune-like planets.


IPAC Authors


David Ciardi

Senior Scientist