TOI-2525 b and c: A Pair of Massive Warm Giant Planets with Strong Transit Timing Variations Revealed by TESS

April 2023 • 2023AJ....165..179T

Authors • Trifonov, Trifon • Brahm, Rafael • Jordán, Andrés • Hartogh, Christian • Henning, Thomas • Hobson, Melissa J. • Schlecker, Martin • Howard, Saburo • Reichardt, Finja • Espinoza, Nestor • Lee, Man Hoi • Nesvorny, David • Rojas, Felipe I. • Barkaoui, Khalid • Kossakowski, Diana • Boyle, Gavin • Dreizler, Stefan • Kürster, Martin • Heller, René • Guillot, Tristan • Triaud, Amaury H. M. J. • Abe, Lyu • Agabi, Abdelkrim • Bendjoya, Philippe • Crouzet, Nicolas • Dransfield, Georgina • Gasparetto, Thomas • Günther, Maximilian N. • Marie-Sainte, Wenceslas • Mékarnia, Djamel • Suarez, Olga • Teske, Johanna • Butler, R. Paul • Crane, Jeffrey D. • Shectman, Stephen • Ricker, George R. • Shporer, Avi • Vanderspek, Roland • Jenkins, Jon M. • Wohler, Bill • Collins, Karen A. • Collins, Kevin I. • Ciardi, David R. • Barclay, Thomas • Mireles, Ismael • Seager, Sara • Winn, Joshua N.

Abstract • The K-type star TOI-2525 has an estimated mass of M = ${0.849}_{-0.033}^{+0.024}$ M and radius of R = ${0.785}_{-0.007}^{+0.007}$ R observed by the TESS mission in 22 sectors (within sectors 1 and 39). The TESS light curves yield significant transit events of two companions, which show strong transit timing variations (TTVs) with a semiamplitude of ~6 hr. We performed TTV dynamical and photodynamical light-curve analysis of the TESS data combined with radial velocity measurements from FEROS and PFS, and we confirmed the planetary nature of these companions. The TOI-2525 system consists of a transiting pair of planets comparable to Neptune and Jupiter with estimated dynamical masses of m b = ${0.088}_{-0.004}^{+0.005}$ and m c = ${0.709}_{-0.033}^{+0.034}$ M Jup, radii of r b = ${0.88}_{-0.02}^{+0.02}$ and r c = ${0.98}_{-0.02}^{+0.02}$ R Jup, and orbital periods of P b = ${23.288}_{-0.002}^{+0.001}$ and P c = ${49.260}_{-0.001}^{+0.001}$ days for the inner and outer planet, respectively. The period ratio is close to the 2:1 period commensurability, but the dynamical simulations of the system suggest that it is outside the mean-motion resonance (MMR) dynamical configuration. Object TOI-2525 b is among the lowest-density Neptune-mass planets known to date, with an estimated median density of ρ b = ${0.174}_{-0.015}^{+0.016}$ g cm-3. The TOI-2525 system is very similar to the other K dwarf systems discovered by TESS, TOI-2202 and TOI-216, which are composed of almost identical K dwarf primaries and two warm giant planets near the 2:1 MMR. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under MPG program 0104.A-9007. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.


IPAC Authors


David Ciardi

Senior Scientist