A tidal disruption event coincident with a high-energy neutrino

February 2021 • 2021NatAs...5..510S

Authors • Stein, Robert • van Velzen, Sjoert • Kowalski, Marek • Franckowiak, Anna • Gezari, Suvi • Miller-Jones, James C. A. • Frederick, Sara • Sfaradi, Itai • Bietenholz, Michael F. • Horesh, Assaf • Fender, Rob • Garrappa, Simone • Ahumada, Tomás • Andreoni, Igor • Belicki, Justin • Bellm, Eric C. • Böttcher, Markus • Brinnel, Valery • Burruss, Rick • Cenko, S. Bradley • Coughlin, Michael W. • Cunningham, Virginia • Drake, Andrew • Farrar, Glennys R. • Feeney, Michael • Foley, Ryan J. • Gal-Yam, Avishay • Golkhou, V. Zach • Goobar, Ariel • Graham, Matthew J. • Hammerstein, Erica • Helou, George • Hung, Tiara • Kasliwal, Mansi M. • Kilpatrick, Charles D. • Kong, Albert K. H. • Kupfer, Thomas • Laher, Russ R. • Mahabal, Ashish A. • Masci, Frank J. • Necker, Jannis • Nordin, Jakob • Perley, Daniel A. • Rigault, Mickael • Reusch, Simeon • Rodriguez, Hector • Rojas-Bravo, César • Rusholme, Ben • Shupe, David L. • Singer, Leo P. • Sollerman, Jesper • Soumagnac, Maayane T. • Stern, Daniel • Taggart, Kirsty • van Santen, Jakob • Ward, Charlotte • Woudt, Patrick • Yao, Yuhan

Abstract • Cosmic neutrinos provide a unique window into the otherwise hidden mechanism of particle acceleration in astrophysical objects. The IceCube Collaboration recently reported the likely association of one high-energy neutrino with a flare from the relativistic jet of an active galaxy pointed towards the Earth. However a combined analysis of many similar active galaxies revealed no excess from the broader population, leaving the vast majority of the cosmic neutrino flux unexplained. Here we present the likely association of a radio-emitting tidal disruption event, AT2019dsg, with a second high-energy neutrino. AT2019dsg was identified as part of our systematic search for optical counterparts to high-energy neutrinos with the Zwicky Transient Facility. The probability of finding any coincident radio-emitting tidal disruption event by chance is 0.5%, while the probability of finding one as bright in bolometric energy flux as AT2019dsg is 0.2%. Our electromagnetic observations can be explained through a multizone model, with radio analysis revealing a central engine, embedded in a UV photosphere, that powers an extended synchrotron-emitting outflow. This provides an ideal site for petaelectronvolt neutrino production. Assuming that the association is genuine, our observations suggest that tidal disruption events with mildly relativistic outflows contribute to the cosmic neutrino flux.


IPAC Authors

Frank Masci

Senior Scientist

Ben Rusholme

Chief Engineer

Dave Shupe

Senior Scientist