The California-Kepler Survey. VI. Kepler Multis and Singles Have Similar Planet and Stellar Properties Indicating a Common Origin

December 2018 • 2018AJ....156..254W

Authors • Weiss, Lauren M. • Isaacson, Howard T. • Marcy, Geoffrey W. • Howard, Andrew W. • Petigura, Erik A. • Fulton, Benjamin J. • Winn, Joshua N. • Hirsch, Lea • Sinukoff, Evan • Rowe, Jason F. • California Kepler Survey, The

Abstract • The California-Kepler Survey (CKS) catalog contains precise stellar and planetary properties for the Kepler planet candidates, including systems with multiple detected transiting planets (“multis”) and systems with just one detected transiting planet (“singles”, although additional planets could exist). We compared the stellar and planetary properties of the multis and singles in a homogeneous subset of the full CKS-Gaia catalog. We found that sub-Neptune-sized singles and multis do not differ in their stellar properties or planet radii. In particular: (1.) The distributions of stellar properties {M}\star , [Fe/H], and v\sin i for the Kepler sub-Neptune-sized singles and multis are statistically indistinguishable. (2.) The radius distributions of the sub-Neptune-sized singles and multis with P > 3 days are indistinguishable, and both have a valley at ∼1.8 {R}\oplus . However, there are significantly more detected short-period (P < 3 days), sub-Neptune-sized singles than multis. The similarity of the host-star properties, planet radii, and radius valley for singles and multis suggests a common origin. The similar radius valley, which is likely sculpted by photo-evaporation from the host star within the first 100 Myr, suggests that planets in both singles and multis spend much of the first 100 Myr near their present, close-in locations. One explanation that is consistent with the similar fundamental properties of singles and multis is that many of the singles are members of multi-planet systems that underwent planet-planet scattering.

Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time was granted for this project by the University of California, and California Institute of Technology, the University of Hawaii, and NASA.


IPAC Authors


Benjamin Fulton

Assistant Scientist