NED Digital Object Identifiers

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a permanent and unique string used to identify a digital resource and link to it on the web. IPAC has created DOIs for many astronomical data sets and for its data or collection services, e.g., NED. If you are writing a manuscript that uses one of these data sets or services, we recommend that you reference the corresponding DOI in your manuscript’s bibliography, in addition to the appropriate refereed journal article. If you are submitting to an AAS Journal, instructions for referencing IPAC DOIs in your manuscript are provided here: Tools such as are useful for quickly generating BibTeX markup for these DOIs.

8 DOIs
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

10.26132/NED1 Service

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) is a comprehensive database of multiwavelength data for extragalactic objects, providing a systematic, ongoing fusion of information integrated from hundreds of large sky surveys and hundreds of thousands of research publications. The contents and services span the entire observed spectrum from gamma rays through radio frequencies. As new observations are published, they are cross-identified or statistically associated with previous data and integrated into a unified database to simplify queries and retrieval.

NED source nomenclature

10.26132/NED2 Service

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

Thousands of acronyms are used in NED. This service provides the list of acronyms and their definitions and further information links.

NED Gravitational Wave Follow-up (GWF) Service

10.26132/NED3 Service

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

The NED GWF service facilitates searches for electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to gravitational wave (GW) events. Within minutes after the LIGO/Virgo/KAGRA collaboration issues an alert using the GCN - NASA's Time-Domain and Multimessenger Alert System (, this NED service responds by cross-matching in 3D the event's HEALPix map with galaxies in the local Universe and the following results are provided: an all-sky image of the probability contours, the location of all galaxies in NED within the 90% probability volume, and the top 20 candidates.

NED Coordinate Calculator

10.26132/NED4 Service

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

The NED coordinate calculator provides conversions among different coordinate systems: equatorial, ecliptic, galactic, and supergalactic.

NED Extinction Calculator

10.26132/NED5 Service

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

The NED extinction calculator returns the foreground Galactic extinction at an input position using the Schlafly & Finkbeiner 2011 (ApJ 737, 103, 2011) recalibration of the Schlegel, Finkbeiner & Davis 1998 (ApJ 500, 525, 1998; SFD98) extinction map. The original SFD98 extinction values are also returned for comparison purposes.

NED Level 5 knowledge base

10.26132/NED6 Collection

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

LEVEL5 provides a curated collection of review articles and important references of current and lasting interest to extragalactic astronomers and cosmologists. Individual extragalactic objects discussed in the text are cross-linked to data in NED, and citations are linked to abstracts and bibliographic information in the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS).

Best Practices for Data Publication

10.26132/NED7 Text

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

This article presents an overview of best practices for publishing data in astronomy and astrophysics journals. These recommendations are intended as a reference for authors to help prepare and publish data in a way that will better represent and support science results, enable better data sharing, improve reproducibility, and enhance the reusability of data. Observance of these guidelines will also help to streamline the extraction, preservation, integration and cross-linking of valuable data from astrophysics literature into major astronomical databases, and consequently facilitate new modes of science discovery that will better exploit the vast quantities of panchromatic and multidimensional data associated with the literature. It encourages authors, journal editors, referees, and publishers to implement the best practices reviewed here, as well as related recommendations from international astronomical organizations such as the International Astronomical Union for publication of nomenclature, data, and metadata.

NED Local Volume Sample (NED-LVS)

10.26132/NED8 Service

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) Local Volume Sample (NED-LVS) is a subset of objects in NED with distances out to 1000 Mpc. Photometry from all-sky surveys (GALEX, 2MASS, and AllWISE) that have been joined into NED are also extracted, with the majority of NED-LVS objects having at least one measurement. These fluxes are used to derive physical properties (SFR and stellar mass) and to estimate the completeness relative to expected local luminosity densities. This sample of galaxies can be used for a wide range of astrophysical studies: star formation, galaxy evolution, large scale structure, follow-up searches to gravitational wave events, etc. This service provides the version of NED-LVS used in the analysis of Cook et al. (2023) as well as future updates that are used in the NED Gravitational Wave Follow-up service.