NED Digital Object Identifiers

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a permanent and unique string used to identify a digital resource and link to it on the web. IPAC has created DOIs for many astronomical data sets and for its data or collection services, e.g., NED. If you are writing a manuscript that uses one of these data sets or services, we recommend that you reference the corresponding DOI in your manuscript’s bibliography, in addition to the appropriate refereed journal article. If you are submitting to an AAS Journal, instructions for referencing IPAC DOIs in your manuscript are provided here: Tools such as are useful for quickly generating BibTeX markup for these DOIs.

7 DOIs
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

10.26132/NED1 Service

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) is a comprehensive database of multiwavelength data for extragalactic objects, providing a systematic, ongoing fusion of information integrated from hundreds of large sky surveys and hundreds of thousands of research publications. The contents and services span the entire observed spectrum from gamma rays through radio frequencies. As new observations are published, they are cross-identified or statistically associated with previous data and integrated into a unified database to simplify queries and retrieval.

NED source nomenclature

10.26132/NED2 Service

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

Thousands of acronyms are used in NED. This service provides the list of acronyms and their definitions and further information links.

NED Gravitational Wave Follow-up (GWF) Service

10.26132/NED3 Service

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

The NED GWF service facilitates searches for electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to gravitational wave (GW) events. Within minutes after the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)-Virgo collaboration issues an alert using the Gamma-ray Coordinates Network (GCN) operated by the NASA GSFC (, this NED service responds by cross-matching in 3D the event's HEALPix map with galaxies in the local Universe and the following results are provided: an all-sky image of the probability contours, the location of all galaxies in NED within the LIGO 90% probability volume, and the top 20 galaxies sorted by 2MASS absolute Ks-band magnitude.

NED Coordinate Calculator

10.26132/NED4 Service

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

The NED coordinate calculator provides conversions among different coordinate systems: equatorial, ecliptic, galactic, and supergalactic.

NED Extinction Calculator

10.26132/NED5 Service

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

The NED extinction calculator returns the foreground Galactic extinction at an input position using the Schlafly & Finkbeiner 2011 (ApJ 737, 103, 2011) recalibration of the Schlegel, Finkbeiner & Davis 1998 (ApJ 500, 525, 1998; SFD98) extinction map. The original SFD98 extinction values are also returned for comparison purposes.

NED Level 5 knowledge base

10.26132/NED6 Collection

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

LEVEL5 provides a curated collection of review articles and important references of current and lasting interest to extragalactic astronomers and cosmologists. Individual extragalactic objects discussed in the text are cross-linked to data in NED, and citations are linked to abstracts and bibliographic information in the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS).

Best Practices for Data Publication

10.26132/NED7 Text

NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED)

The article provides an overview of challenges encountered in ongoing efforts to improve the automation, efficiency, and accuracy of the procedures required to extract, transform, cross-identify, and integrate data from the electronic astrophysics literature into the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED). Recommendations for best practices for publishing data are provided, from the perspective of the NED Team, to serve as a reference guide for authors, referees and editors of astrophysics journal articles.